The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Six times more expensive to travel by car than by bicycle: study

Students on bikes. Photo: Lasse Strandberg
Photo: Lasse Strandberg

It is six times more expensive for society – and for you individually - if you travel by car instead of cycling. This has been shown in a Department of Service Management and Service Management study of Copenhagen, a city of cyclists. It is the first time a price has been put on car use as compared to cycling.


In the comparative study, Stefan Gössling from Lund University and Andy S. Choi from the University of Queensland have investigated a cost-benefit analysis that the Copenhagen Municipality uses to determine whether new cycling infrastructure should be built.
It considers how much cars cost society and how they compare to bicycles in terms of air pollution, climate change, travel route, noise, road wear, health and congestion in Copenhagen.

The study concluded that cars have a greater negative impact on the economy than bicycles:

If the costs to society and the costs to private individuals are added together, the impact of the car is EUR 0.50 per kilometre and the impact of the bicycle is EUR 0.08 per kilometre.

The study by Stefan Gössling and his colleague also shows that if we only look at costs/benefits for society, one kilometre by car costs EUR 0.15, whereas society earns EUR 0.16 on every kilometre cycled.

“The cost-benefit analysis in Copenhagen shows that investments in cycling infrastructure and bike-friendly policies are economically sustainable and give high returns”,says Stefan Gössling.

Cost-benefit analysis is a method used to calculate the benefits to society of infrastructure investments.


‘Transport transitions in Copenhagen: Comparing the cost of cars and bicycles’


Professor Stefan Gössling
Department of Service Management and Service Studies, Lund University
Mobile: 070-492 26 34
E-mail:stefan [dot] gossling [at] ism [dot] lu [dot] se